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Cognition and Learning

Cognition and Learning

The area of C&L encompasses ADHD, MLD, PMLD, SLD, SpLD, Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, Dyslexia and Dyspraxia.  Here is a brief outline of what each of those mean:


ADHDAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a complex condition which can seriously affect a child’s concentration, behaviour and learning. A child with ADHD will often feel easily bored, may be distracted by unimportant sounds and sights, be impulsive and find it hard to sit still. This impacts on their learning as they can find it very hard to concentrate for the periods of time needed to complete tasks. Consequently, the work that they produce may not necessarily reflect their true ability.


MLD- Moderate Learning Difficulties mean pupils will have attainments significantly below expected levels in most areas of the curriculum despite appropriate interventions.  Pupils with MLDs have much greater difficulty than their peers in acquiring basic literacy and numeracy skills and in understanding concepts. They may also have an associated speech and language delay, low self-esteem, low levels of concentration and under-developed social skills.


PMLD - Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulty means a child has complex learning needs. In addition to very severe learning difficulties, pupils have other significant difficulties such as physical disabilities, sensory impairment or a severe medical condition. Pupils require a high level of adult support, both for their learning needs and also for their personal care.


SLD - Severe Learning Difficulty - this has a major effect on a child's ability to participate in the school curriculum without support. They may also have difficulties in mobility and co-ordination, communication and perception and the acquisition of self-help skills. Pupils with severe learning difficulties will need support in all areas of the curriculum.


SpLD - Specific Learning Difficulty - a child may have a difficulty with one or more aspects of their learning including a range of conditions such as dyslexia (difficulties with reading and spelling); dyscalculia (maths); dyspraxia (co-ordination) and dysgraphia (writing).


Dyscalculia - A child may have difficulty understanding simple number concepts, lack an intuitive grasp of numbers or have problems learning number facts and procedures.


Dysgraphia - This is an extreme difficulty with fine motor skills and can have trouble organizing letters, numbers and words on a line or page.


Dyslexia - This is a persistent difficulty in learning to read, write and spell, despite progress in other areas. Pupils may have poor reading comprehension, handwriting and punctuation. They may also have difficulties in concentration and organisation, and in remembering sequences of words. They may mispronounce common words or reverse letters and sounds in words.


Dyspraxia - This is an impairment or immaturity of the organisation of movement, often appearing clumsy. Gross and fine motor skills are hard to learn and difficult to retain and generalise. Pupils may have poor balance and coordination and may be hesitant in many actions (running, skipping, hopping, holding a pencil, doing jigsaws, etc).



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